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DNA engineering evidences (a7)

6.1 First modern DNA engineering - Sheep Dolly born

Shumeran10 Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female Finnish Dorset sheep and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell. She was cloned by associates of the Roslin Institute in Scotland, using the process of nuclear transfer from a cell taken from a mammary gland. Her cloning proved that a cloned organism could be produced from a mature cell from a specific body part. Contrary to popular belief, she was not the first animal to be cloned.

6.2 Studies show the human DNA clock

The story of human ancestors used to be write only in bones and tools, but since the 1960s DNA has given its own version of events. Some results were revelatory, such as when DNA studies showed that all modern humans descended from ancestors who lived in Africa more than 100,000 years ago.

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  • But much more interesting results were brought by the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), in which mutations occur rather slowly. At one time, this property was used to calculate the time when humanity became a separate species by the "molecular clock" method - the result was obtained from mtDNA about 200 thousand years ago. During this time, mankind has gradually accumulated only about 120 mutations in mtDNA. For comparison, Neanderthals have 200 differences, and chimpanzees have 1500 differences from the human CRS, the "standard" of mtDNA.
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  • It is interesting to mention the observation that ancient modern human fossil locations are close to ancient sites where ancient constructions and ancient growing of cereals fossils we found indicating that modern Human got /acquired special agriculture and building knowledge in several locations almost simultaniuosly.

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